The word "endoscopy" denotes the use of fiberoptic instruments to investigate and possibly biopsy certain body cavities. It is a "noninvasive" procedure which means no surgical incisions are required. For the patient, this means a short anesthetic period with a rapid recovery. All endoscopies in small animals require full anesthesia, and therefore may require pre-anesthetic evaluations such as blood tests, radiographs (xrays), and/or ultrasound. Endoscopies are usually considered among the low-risk procedures in veterinary medicine.
All pets admitted for these procedures are first evaluated by a veterinarian who will examine your pet, the medical history, the feasibility of endoscopy, and carefully determine any ancillary tests that will be required. At that time, a written estimate can be given, and questions or concerns you may have can be discussed in detail. Pets are generally required to be admitted to the hospital for the day. Please fast your pet (no food; water OK) for at least 12 hours prior to the admission time.
Cystoscopy is rigid endoscopic evaluation of a female dog’s vagina, urethra and bladder, and the male dog's urethra and bladder. Cystoscopy is specific and sensitive for the diagnosis of urinary tract problems and it provides additional information not obtained through radiographs, contrast studies or ultrasound. Indications for cystoscopy are: blood in the urine (hematuria), bladder/ urethral cancer, incontinence (leaking urine), recurrent urinary tract infections, small bladder stone removal, and vaginal discharge. Cystoscopy can be completed on all sizes of female dogs, and medium to large male dogs.
Bronchoscopy is fiberoptic examination of the respiratory system. This includes the larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tree. This is a short, day procedure that allows the internist to take samples and bacterial cultures of the airways. It may be preceded by chest radiographs (xrays), and certain blood tests. Common reasons for bronchoscopy are chronic cough, suspected pneumonia, allergy, or cancer.
Gastroscopy allows the internist to closely examine an animal 's esophagus, stomach, and the first portion of the small intestine. The health of these tissues can be assessed, biopsies harvested, and sometimes foreign objects can be retrieved. The pet is fasted at least 12 hours prior to the procedure, and is usually released on the same day. Common reasons for gastroscopy are weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.
Colonoscopy allows the doctor to evaluate disease processes of the large intestine (colon), and rectum. This process is recommended for animals that have chronic diarrhea, are straining to defecate, and/or have blood in their stools. This procedure sometimes requires a 24 hour fast (water is okay).
Rhinoscopy is the use of fiberoptics to investigate the nasal cavity. It can be used for dogs and cats and is a short day procedure. It is usually accompanied by skull and nasal radiographs, and biopsy. Chronic sneezing, snorting, "reverse sneezing," chronic nasal discharge, or nasal bleeding would be indications for rhinoscopy.